The extent of the disparities in mortality throughout the four UK areas is outlined in a report that was posted on the inquiry website.

The investigation's second phase looks on significant choices taken by the UK government between January 2020 and February 2022, particularly those involving correspondence between Westminster and the country's devolved regions.

Professor Thomas Hale, an associate professor at the University of Oxford's Blavatnik School of Government and the director of the Oxford Covid-19 Government Response Tracker, has drafted the report for the investigation.

He said that although Northern Ireland ranked 34th in all of Europe, its death toll was lower than that of England, Scotland, and Wales combined.

“Relatively high health impacts, economic impacts, and long periods of restrictive policies” were all combined, according to his research, to affect the UK.

It continued: “England ranked 15th among European countries for the three-year period from 2020 to 2022, with the 19th greatest number of fatalities per capita worldwide.

Comparatively speaking, Northern Ireland fared better when it came to the pandemic's effects, coming in at number 52 globally and 34th in Europe.

Scotland ranked closely behind, coming in at number 38 in the world and number 27 in Europe. Wales, meanwhile, came in at number twenty-first in Europe and thirty-first overall.”

Based on the research, “some notable differences emerge” when comparing policy responses inside the UK.

As to the statement, Westminster tended to relax regulations in England before other countries (such closing schools and workplaces), and at times, its policy responses were laxer than those of other countries.

“During the second half of 2020, policies in England and Northern Ireland are typically less restrictive than those in Scotland and Wales.”

“For the latter part of 2021, Northern Ireland had the most stringent measures whereas England had the least stringent measures of the four nations.”

“There is remarkable consistency across different parts of the UK in many policy areas, particularly during the first wave of the pandemic,” the statement went on.

“The application of internal travel restrictions between cities and counties varies the greatest.

“Towards the second half of the pandemic (mid-2021 onwards) it is clear that Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland were more likely to use stringent policy measures than England.”

The limits imposed on Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are also contrasted in the study.

“Overall, we do not observe major differences between the two jurisdictions during the early months of the pandemic,” the statement reads, with the exception that Northern Ireland implemented workplace restrictions more slowly than the other jurisdiction.

“As observed for all the UK nations, the Republic of Ireland was particularly slow to adopt international travel restrictions in comparison to other countries.”